In the beginning of the first ten-day period of July 2019, there were hot weather conditions with the record daytime air temperature (+33...39°C), as well as the average daily air temperature exceeded the standard by 2-9°C. On the following days, under the influence of active cold atmospheric waves from the north-west, there was observed some cooling-down, which by the end of the ten-day period covered the whole territory of the country. In southern oblasts, the hot weather developed somewhat longer, and the temperature declined in the second half of the reporting period only. The average daily temperature was almost standard, and on the last days of the reporting period the figures reduced by 2-5°C. The temperature fluctuations were rather significant — in the beginning of the ten-day period, on the hottest days, the maximum temperature sometimes reached the absolute levels. At the end of the reporting period, in the coldest nights in some raions of western, northern and eastern oblasts the minimum temperature reached one of the lowest figures in the whole contemporary history — +5...8°C.
The change in weather was followed by rather irregular rains, as well as strong winds, thunderstorms and hail. In some raions of southern and central oblasts, there were observed heavy rains, with the precipitation depth at the level of 0.5-1.5 monthly standards, and reached the criterion of natural hydrometeorological phenomena. In some raions, the reporting heavy rains caused damage to the population and agricultural industry, including power outages, falling trees, crop losses, etc.
In the reporting period, the sunshine duration to the soil surface varied within 82-120 hours, an increase of nearly 10-26 hours compared with the standard.
In northern and eastern oblasts, as well as Poltava and Dnipropetrovsk oblasts, the average ten-day air temperature varied within the standard rates, while in the remaining part of the country — up 1.0-2.3°C compared with the standard, and totaled +17.7...23.1°C.
In the beginning of the ten-day period, on the warmest days, the maximum air temperature increased to +35...39°C, while in Zakarpattia, Ivano-Frankivsk, Lviv, Khmelnytskyi, Cherkasy, Poltava and Sumy oblasts — to +33...34°C. For 1-3 days, the maximum temperature figures exceeded +30°C throughout almost all territory of the country, while in southern and Dnipropetrovsk oblasts the level reached 4-6 days.
For 1-2 days, the maximum temperature figures exceeded +35°C in southern and eastern oblasts, as well as Dnipropetrovsk, Volyn, some raions of Kirovohrad, Vinnytsia, Chernihiv, Kyiv, Zhytomyr, Rivne, Ternopil and Chernivtsi oblasts.
In the coldest nights, the minimum air temperature declined to +5...10°C, while in Kherson oblast — to +12°C.
On the warmest days, the soil surface heated to nearly +52...68°C, while at night time it cooled to +6...11°C, and in peat bogs of Kyiv oblast — to +1°C.
For 2-6 days, there were uneven precipitations throughout almost whole territory of the country, with heavy rains, squalls, thunderstorms and hails in some raions. In eastern and Zaporizhia oblasts, the average depth of precipitations varied within the ten-day standard, while in Kherson, Dnipropetrovsk and Zakarpattia oblasts the figures reached 131-243% of the ten-day standard (17-51 mm). In Volyn, Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk, Kirovohrad, Odessa and Mykolaiv oblasts, the ten-day depth of precipitations totaled 58-79% of the standard (17-30 mm). In the remaining part of the country, the precipitation depth figures varied within 9-46% of the standard (3-16 mm). In some raions of Odessa and Cherkasy oblasts, there were no precipitations at all.
In some raions of Zakarpattia, Lviv, Kirovohrad, Dnipropetrovsk, Kherson and Kharkiv oblasts, the daily maximum precipitation reached 25-55 mm. In Sarat (Odessa oblast), there was observed the maximum level of daily precipitation — 70 mm (2.8 ten-day standards), in Nova Kakhovka (Kherson oblast) — 74 mm (3.5 ten-day standards).
In Komisarivka (Dnipropetrovsk oblast), the daily precipitation figures exceeded the maximum precipitation level in July by 5 mm for the whole contemporary history (74 mm).
In western and northern oblasts, as well as Zhytomyr and Vinnytsia oblasts, the average temperature of the soil at the depth of 10 cm totaled +19...24°C, and in the remaining territory of the country — +25...30°C. For 4-10 days of the reporting period, the figures throughout the country even increased to +25°C and above.
In the reporting period, the relative humidity of the air in the country varied within the range of 54-77%. For 1-7 days throughout the most part of the country, except for Zhytomyr and Khmelnytskyi oblasts, in daytime the figures reduced to 30% and below.
For 1-2 days, in most oblasts, except for Donetsk oblast, the wind speed increased to 15-23 m/s, while in Dnipropetrovsk, Chernihiv and Sumy oblasts — 26-28 m/s.
In the first ten-day period of July 2019, the vegetation processes of agricultural crops took place in terms of rather significant fluctuations of the weather factors. In the beginning of the period, in terms of the hot weather with the precipitation deficit, the conditions for vegetation of late crops were extremely unfavourable, in particular for dusting of buckwheat, soybeans, and corn. In terms of the following decreasing of the temperature and growing of the air humidity, the weather conditions somewhat improved. At the same time, in many raions of southern, eastern and central oblasts, there was observed the precipitation deficit in the period from June till July 10 (25-40% of the standard), and local heavy rains in the first ten-day period did not bring any significant improvement in the weather conditions.
In the remaining part of the month , some rains throughout the country and the lack of heat, expected by the weather forecasts until July 20, will become rather favourable factors for formation of the harvest of late crops.
According to the Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Center www.meteo.gov.ua