On most days of the first ten-day period of May 2019, in the Central and Volga Federal Districts there were rather warm weather conditions. The average air temperature exceeded the standard by 3-5°C, and even more. In terms of the generally favourable weather conditions, agricultural households of all categories continued realizing the spring planting campaign. Agrarians planted cold-season spring grains and forage crops, and in southern raions — late spring grains and tilled crops. In the Central Black Earth oblasts and central raions of the Volga District, the average temperature of the soil at the depth of 10 cm totaled +15…20°C, while in more northern raions — +10…14°C. Only on the first two or three days of the reporting period, there were observed cool weather conditions, with uneven precipitations.
In all raions, there were observed air and soil frosts (at -4…-1°C); due to freezing of the topsoil layer, the agro-meteorological conditions for provision of spring crops planting and spouts emergence somewhat worsened. In western raions of the Northwestern Federal District, there were observed cool weather conditions with some precipitations (on the coldest days — in the form of snow), the conditions for planting works were unfavourable.
On most days, in the major grain-producing raions of the European part of Russia the agro-meteorological conditions for spouts emergence, growth and development of crops were mainly good. In northern raions, winter grains reached the stage of tillering, but in the southern half of the Central and Volga Districts — stem growing processes (growing of the lower stem node above the soil surface).
The condition of winter crops in the Central District was mainly good, but in the Volga District the figures were mostly satisfactory, and sometimes even bad, due to rather unpleasant autumn-winter conditions and severe frosts in the beginning of the vegetation period. The planted areas under early spring grains were in the stages of sprouts emergence and seed germination, depending on the planting dates. Sprouts of sugar beet and sunflower seed started growing in the fields with early planted crops. The moisture provision of crops was mainly good.
In some raions of the southern half of the Central and Volga Districts, the moisture reserves in the tilth-top soil layer decreased to the satisfactory level, and in some fields in the north-east of Saratov oblast, the extreme south of Ulyanovsk oblast — insufficient and bad.
In the Southern and North Caucasian Federal Districts, there were rather changeable weather conditions. In almost all raions, agrarians continued planting late warm-season crops. On most days, the agro-meteorological conditions for provision of spring crops planting works were mostly good and satisfactory.
In the reporting ten-day period, sugar beet, sunflower seed and corn spouts appeared in the fields. Also, the crops started leaf formation processes in the fields of early planting terms. In most fields in the Southern and North Caucasian Districts, winter grain crops continued its stem growing processes and initiation of ear, as well as in some fields winter barley already came into ear stage. The planted areas under spring barley were in the stages of leaf formation and tillering, depending on the planting dates, while in the fields of early planting terms they already reached the stem growing stage. The agro-meteorological conditions for development and growth of grain crops were mainly favourable. The moisture provision of agricultural crops was mainly good, but in some fields in eastern raions the figures were satisfactory, and even insufficient and bad in some cases.
In the remaining part of the month, in most raions of the European part Russia the agro-meteorological conditions for holding of the spring crops planting campaign, vegetation of winter grains, spouts emergence, spring crops growth and development, will be mostly satisfactory.
For the first couple of days of May 2019, in most agricultural raions of the Ural Federal District and Western Siberia there were somewhat colder weather conditions than usual. The average daily air temperature lowered by 3-7°C below the standard. In almost all raions, there were observed air and soil surface frosts (to -7…-5°C, and even -11…-10°C). So, the soil warming and drying processes somewhat slowed down.
In the reporting period, in the south of Western Siberia, where in late April in daytime hours winter grains demonstrated poor vegetation processes, the vegetation development almost stopped. In other raions of the territory, vegetation processes of winter crops still did not resume. The observed frosts were not dangerous for winter crops.
Since May 3-4, the weather conditions became warmer, and it got abnormally hot. In most raions, the trend kept almost until the end of the ten-day period. The average air temperature exceeded the standard by 8-12°C, and the maximum temperature increased to +25…30°C. The soil warming and drying processes somewhat sped up. At the end of the ten-day period, in all raions the vegetation processes of winter grains resumed, mainly in the terms close to the average multi-year ones.
In southern raions of the territory, in the fields with light soil its upper layer reached the high-plastic condition, which allowed starting its treatment works and planting of early cold-season grain crops. There almost were no precipitations, or they were quite negligible (less than 10 mm), and the conditions for beginning of the spring crops planting campaign were rather satisfactory.
In Eastern Siberia, in terms of weather cooling-down in the beginning of the ten-day period, the soil warming and drying processes also slowed down. The observed frosts (to -10…-5°C) caused some freezing of the topsoil layer. In the second half of the ten-day period, it became warmer (the daytime temperature raised to +25…27° C), and the frosts completely stopped. In some raions of Krasnoyarsk Krai and Irkutsk oblasts, the conditions for soil cultivation and planting works of early cold-season grains and forage crops slightly improved.
In Primorsky Krai, Khabarovsk Krai and the south of Amur oblast, agrarians continued planting early spring crops. For almost half of the ten-day period, in Amur oblast the conditions of planting works became complicated, due to the recent frosts (to -7...-3°), and in Primorsky and Khabarovsk Krais — mainly due to some precipitations of varying intensity. On the other days of the ten-day period, the weather conditions for spring planting works were satisfactory. In the second half of the ten-day period, in some fields with early planted crops there were observed sprouts of early spring grains.
In most agricultural raions of the Asian part of Russia, including the Ural Federal District and Western Siberia, the agro-meteorological conditions for vegetation of winter grain crops and realization of spring field works will be mostly satisfactory. In some north-eastern regions of Western Siberia, the vegetation of winter crops will take place in terms of the reduced heat provision.
According to the Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia www.meteoinfo.ru