In the first ten-day period of May 2019, the high cyclonic activity over Europe, including Ukraine, caused the changeable weather conditions with heavy and long-lasting rains in the western and northern parts of the country, but uneven, sometimes heavy rains, with hail and thunderstorms in the remaining part of the territory.
There were observed rather sharp fluctuations of the average daily air temperature, in many raions there were frosts and rushing mighty winds. In mountainous raions of the Carpathians, precipitations developed in the form of snow and sleet, which even formed the snow cover.
In western oblasts, there were the coolest weather conditions, where on some days the average daily temperature decreased by 5-8°C compared with the standard. As a comparison, the first ten-day period of May 2018 was the warmest one for the whole period of meteorological observations in western oblasts, and the level of average daily temperatures corresponded to the standard figures of late June.
Due to the cloudy weather, the sunshine duration to the soil surface varied within 29-79 hours, which almost reached the standard figures in the south of Odessa oblast, while in the remaining part of the country — down 10-55 hours compared with the standard.
The average oblast air temperature varied within the standard rates and totaled +9.5...13°C, while in western oblasts, Kyiv and Vinnytsia oblasts — down 1-2.5°C, in Donetsk oblast — up 1°C, at the same time the figures in southern, eastern oblasts and Dnipropetrovsk oblast reached +14...15°C.
On the warmest days, the maximum air temperature reached +24...27°C, while in western oblasts, except for Chernivtsi, Zhytomyr and Chernihiv oblasts — +19...23°C.
In the coldest nights, the minimum air temperature declined to +2...5°C, while in western oblasts, except for Chernivtsi and Zhytomyr oblasts — 0...-1°C.
At night, in western oblasts the soil surface temperature cooled to 0...-3°C, while in eastern oblasts — to +1...5°C. But on the warmest days, in northern and western oblasts the soil surface heated to nearly +27...44°C, while in the remaining territory of Ukraine — to +45-61°C.
For 1-3 days in some raions of western oblasts, Dnipropetrovsk, Chernihiv, Kyiv, Zhytomyr, Luhansk and Zaporizhia oblasts, and for 1-5 days in mountainous raions of the Carpathians, there were frosts in the air, as well as soil frosts and at the height of 2 cm.
For 4-9 days, there were uneven precipitations throughout almost whole territory of the country, with thunderstorms, squalls and hails in some raions. In most oblasts, the average depth of precipitations totaled 210-370% of the standard (41-100 mm), while in Zakarpattia, Cherkasy, Kirovohrad, Dnipropetrovsk, Kharkiv, Donetsk and Zaporizhia oblasts — 117-195% (15-40 mm). In Odessa, Mykolaiv and Kherson oblasts, the ten-day depth of precipitations totaled 57-69% (8-10 mm).
In the mountain meteorological station Yaremche (Ivano-Frankivsk oblast), there was observed the maximum level of ten-day precipitations — 153 mm (4 ten-day standards), but in Dolyna and Kolomyia (Ivano-Frankivsk oblast) — 107 mm and 109 mm respectively (3 and almost 5 ten-day standards).
In some raions of the country, except for Sumy, Cherkasy, Kirovohrad, Donetsk, Odessa, Mykolaiv and Kherson oblasts, the daily maximum precipitation reached 20-49 mm (1-3 ten-day standards).
The average temperature of the soil at the depth of 10 cm totaled +10...18°C. For 1-3 days, in one of the observation periods in eastern and southern oblasts it even increased to +25°C and above.
In the reporting period, the relative humidity of the air in the country varied within the average range of 67-83%. For 1-3 days, in eastern and southern oblasts, Poltava, Kirovohrad, Dnipropetrovsk, Rivne and Volyn oblasts the figures reduced to 30% and below.
For 1-4 days, in most oblasts, except for Sumy, Zhytomyr, Chernihiv, Poltava, Luhansk and Donetsk oblasts, the wind speed increased to 15-23 m/s.
Taking into account the existing weather conditions in the first ten-day period of May, Ukraine faced rather variable agro-meteorological conditions associated with the depth and intensity of precipitations, as well as the air temperature range.
Generally, the weather conditions in most agricultural raions were favourable for all spring crops, due to the sufficient moisture provision and almost optimum level of the air and soil temperatures for most spring crops.
In the remaining part of the month, the weather conditions for further crops development in Ukraine will be quite good.
According to the Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Center www.meteo.gov.ua