In first ten-day period of March 2019, in most raions of the European part of Russia, except for eastern raions of the Northwestern Federal District and northern raions of the Volga District, the weather conditions became warmer compared with the standard level. The average air temperature exceeded the standard by nearly 3-7°C. In most raions of the Central, Volga Federal Districts and western raions of the Northwestern District, the average daily air temperature mainly increased to +2...5°C. In the periods of short-term falls in temperature on March 2-3 and 6-7, the minimum air temperature dropped to -15...-10°C, and in the east of the territory — to -20°C. In terms of the warm weather conditions, snow covering in the fields started melting and condensing, also in western raions of the territory its depth mainly totaled 10-20 cm, and in eastern raions the figures reached 50-70 cm and even more. Also, the depth of soil freezing slightly reduced, and mainly varied within 5-35 cm (in some southern raions of the Volga District — 50-80 cm and more). The minimum soil temperature at the tillering zone depth of winter grains (3 cm) varied within -3...0°C. The agro-meteorological conditions for completing of the overwintering period of winter grains were mainly satisfactory.
In southern raions of the Central District, the average temperature of the soil at the depth of 3 cm totaled nearly 0°C, and overwintering crops demonstrated the excessive consumption of nutrients for respiration, which reduced their winter resistance capacities. In some raions of Leningrad, Yaroslavl, Ivanovo, Kostroma, Vologda, Kirov and Nizhny Novgorod oblasts, where the soil froze down throughout several cm only in terms of the high snow cover, and in some fields there were thawed soil processes, which formed the conditions for damaging of winter crops due to rotting processes.
In the Southern and North Caucasian Federal Districts, the weather conditions were mostly warm. The daytime air temperature mainly increased to +6...12°C (on some days in southern raions — to +15...20°C), but at night the figures dropped to -3...-2°C.
In Krasnodar Krai, the Crimea, and some raions of the North Caucasian Republics, winter grain crops started vegetating, due to increasing of the average daily temperature to +8°C. In the fields under late planted winter crops, the plants already started sprouting. Some crops started leaf formation and tillering processes. The condition of winter crop areas somewhat improved.
In southern raions, farms started the early spring dressing of plants, and in the Crimea — planting of early spring and fodder crops. In the northern half of the Southern District, winter crops continued their overwintering processes in rather satisfactory conditions. The depth of snow cover varied within the range of 5-25 cm. The depth of soil freezing mainly totaled 10-40 cm. Since late February, in some fields of Rostov and Volgograd oblasts ice crust started breaking.
In the remaining part of the month, in most raions of the European part of the Russian Federation the agro-meteorological conditions for vegetation of grain crops will be mainly satisfactory, as well as in the south of the Southern District and in most raions of the North Caucasian District.
For the first ten days of March 2019, in most agricultural raions of the Ural Federal District and Western Siberia there were somewhat warmer weather conditions than usual. The average daily air temperature exceeded the standard level by 4-8°C, and on some days — up 9-13°C. In the majority of raions of the territory, the maximum air temperature increased to +2...5°C, while in the south-east of Altai Krai — +10...12°C, which contributed to snow melting and compaction in the fields. At the same time, on some days the minimum air temperature mainly lowered to -18...-12°C, while in the east of the Ural District and the west of Western Siberia the figures even reached -28...-23°C. In the reporting period, in most raions of the territory winter crops were under snow cover with the depth of 25-45 cm (in north-eastern raions of Western Siberia — 50 cm and more), and the relatively short-term decrease of air temperature was not dangerous for plants at all. In all raions, the minimum soil temperature at the tillering zone depth of winter crops (3 cm) varied within -4...-1°C.
In some south-western raions of Novosibirsk oblast and south-eastern raions of Western Siberia, the snow cover depth reached 5-15 cm, and the minimum soil temperature at the depth of 3 cm mainly varied within -12...-8°C, which also was not dangerous for winter crops. In most raions, the weather conditions for ending of the overwintering period of grain crops were good and satisfactory. In some south-eastern raions of Altai Krai, they slightly worsened due to keeping of ice crust in the fields with the depth of 15-30 mm. In some north-eastern raions of Western Siberia, where the depth of snow cover was more than 60 cm, and the depth of soil freezing was less than 15 cm, there were rather dangerous weather conditions for damaging of winter crops due to rotting processes. In the reporting raions, the minimum soil temperature at the tillering zone depth of winter crops (3 cm) mainly varied at 0°C.
In the remaining part of the month, in most raions of the Asian part of the Russian Federation the agro-meteorological conditions for ending the overwintering period of winter grains will be mostly satisfactory.
According to the Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia www.meteoinfo.ru