In first ten-day period of February 2019, in the Northwestern, Central Federal Districts, and the western half of the Volga District, the weather conditions became warmer compared with the standard level. The average daily air temperature mainly exceeded the standard by 3-8°C, and on February 4-6 in some raions of the Central District — up 9-11°C. In most raions of the Central District, western raions of the Northwestern District, and south-western raions of the Volga District, there were observed weak thawing processes (+2...3°C in daytime). In the eastern half of the European territory, at night the air temperature dropped to -30...-20°С, but in the western half of the territory there were minor frosts (-10...-3°C).
In most raions, the depth of precipitation mainly totaled 15-20 mm. In the south-west of the Central District and the extreme south of the Volga District, there was some deficit of precipitations (3-10 mm). In terms of the warm weather conditions, in western raions of the territory, snow covering in the fields started melting and condensing, and for the ten-day period its depth decreased by 5-10 cm, and at the end of the reporting period its depth mainly varied within 20-45 cm. In eastern raions of the territory, the snow cover depth in the fields increased, and in some raions of the Middle Volga region the figures reached 60-85 cm and more. The depth of soil freezing almost did not change, and mainly varied within 12-40 cm (in some southern raions of the Volga District — 60-80 cm and more).
The minimum soil temperature at the tillering zone depth of winter grains (3 cm) decreased to -3...-1°C (in some southern raions of the Volga District — to -7...-5°C). The agro-meteorological conditions for overwintering of grain crops were mainly satisfactory. There were no low air and soil temperature figures, which could be dangerous for plants. In southern raions of the Central District, the soil temperature at the tillering zone depth of winter crops (3 cm) mainly reached 0°C, and wintering crops faced some violations of the condition of induced dormancy, as well as they demonstrated the excessive consumption of nutrients for respiration, which reduced their winter resistance capacities. In some raions of Leningrad, Novgorod, Smolensk, Tver, Yaroslavl, Ivanovo, Kostroma, Vologda, Kirov and Nizhny Novgorod oblasts, where the soil with the large-scale snow cover (40-45 cm and more) froze down throughout 2-10 cm only, and sometimes it remained just thawed, there were the conditions for some damaging of winter crops due to rotting processes.
In the Southern and North Caucasian Federal Districts, the weather conditions were mostly warm. The daytime air temperature mainly increased to +6...8°C (on some days in southern raions — to +12...18°C), but at night the figures lowered to -3...-2°C. On most days of the period, in Krasnodar Krai, the Crimea, and the North Caucasian Republics, there were observed the low-scale vegetation processes of winter grains. In the northern half of the territory, winter crops continued their overwintering processes in rather satisfactory conditions. At the end of the reporting period, the snow cover depth varied within 10-50 cm. The depth of soil freezing mainly varied within 10-20 cm.
In the remaining part of the month, in most raions of the European part of the Russian Federation the agro-meteorological conditions for the overwintering period of winter grains will be mostly satisfactory. On some days, in the southern half of Krasnodar Krai there will be low-scale vegetation processes of winter grains.
In the second half of the reporting ten-day period in February 2019, in most agricultural raions of the Ural Federal District, and for almost the whole first ten-day period in Western Siberia, the weather conditions were abnormally colder than usual. The average daily temperature lowered by 10-15ºC compared with the standard, and on some days in Western Siberia — down 16-19ºC. In almost all raions, the minimum air temperature dropped to -43...-38ºC, in certain raions of Tomsk oblast and northern raions of Kemerovo oblast — to -48...-46ºC and below.
Winter grain crops were under snow cover, which depth in most raions of the Ural District slightly increased after the recent snowfalls (the ten-day figures varied within 8-20 mm), and at the end of the reporting period, the snow depth usually varied within 30-45 cm, and in some raions in the north of the territory — more than 50 cm. In Western Siberia, there was some deficit of precipitations (in the south-west — 2-5 mm for the ten-day period), and in the north-east of the territory there almost were no precipitations, and the depth of snow cover almost did not change compared with the figures in late January 2019. At the end of the ten-day period, in the south-west of Western Siberia the depth of snow cover mainly varied within 22-30 cm, only in some south-western raions of Novosibirsk oblast, northern and southern raions of Altai Krai — less than 20 cm. In most other raions of Western Siberia, the snow cover depth varied within 35-50 cm, in the north of Omsk oblast, some eastern raions of Novosibirsk oblast, north-western raions of Kemerovo oblast, north-eastern raions of Altai Krai, and some raions of Tomsk oblast, the figures totaled more than 50 cm.
In terms of such snow cover depth, the observed severe frosts were not dangerous for winter crops. In the south of the territory, the minimum soil temperature at the tillering zone depth of winter crops (3 cm) mainly totaled -11...-7ºC, while in the north — nearly -6...-3ºC, but in some southern raions of the territory the figures fell to -14ºC, which also was not dangerous for plants. The weather conditions for ending of the overwintering period were quite satisfactory. Only in some south-eastern raions of Altai Krai, where the snow cover depth reached 10 cm and below, the minimum soil temperature at the depth 3 cm totaled nearly -20ºC and below, which was dangerous for weak winter wheat and winter rye planted areas. In such raions, the frosts can somewhat damage the reporting crops.
In addition, in the above-mentioned raions the ice crust remained with the depth of 15-20 mm and more, which was rather unfavourable factor for the overwintering period of winter crops. In some north-eastern raions of Western Siberia, where the snow cover depth was still more than 50 cm, and the soil freezing depth was less than 10 cm, there were dangerous weather conditions for damaging of winter crops, due to rotting processes. But due to severe frosts, the rotting processes somewhat slowed down.
In the remaining part of February 2019, in most agricultural raions of the Ural Federal District and Western Siberia the agro-meteorological conditions for overwintering of grain crops will be mostly satisfactory.
According to the Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia www.meteoinfo.ru